Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can maintain self-renewal and differentiate into any cell type of the three primary germ layers. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the regulation of mESC differentiation and induces the activation of a series of kinase responses and several cell signaling pathways by binding to its respective transmembrane receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor VEGFR1, and VEGFR2. Fruquintinib is a selective inhibitor of VEGFRs, and we used it to investigate the effects on the maintenance of pluripotency and differentiation potential of mESCs in this study. Our results showed that fruquintinib-treated cells expressed higher levels of pluripotent markers, including Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Esrrb under serum and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) condition, whereas the expression of phosphorylated Erk1/2 was restricted. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) signaling inhibitor (PD0325901) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling inhibitor (CHIR99021) (also known as 2i) enable cells to maintain naive pluripotency with LIF, and fruquintinib can also promote cells to maintain naive pluripotent state even under serum/LIF condition, whereas VEGF addition limits the pluripotency characteristics in serum/LIF mESCs. Furthermore, fruquintinib could inhibit the three-germ layer establishment in embryoid body formation and maintain the undifferentiated characteristics of mESCs, indicating that fruquintinib could promote the maintenance of naive pluripotency and inhibit early differentiation programs.