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Effects of inbreeding on a gregarious parasitoid wasp with complementary sex determination.

Effects of inbreeding on a gregarious parasitoid wasp with complementary sex determination.
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Zaviezo T, Retamal R, Urvois T, Fauvergue X, Blin A, Malausa T,


Zaviezo T, Retamal R, Urvois T, Fauvergue X, Blin A, Malausa T, (click to view)

Zaviezo T, Retamal R, Urvois T, Fauvergue X, Blin A, Malausa T,

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Evolutionary applications 2017 10 1311(2) 243-253 doi 10.1111/eva.12537
Abstract

Inbreeding and inbreeding depression are processes in small populations of particular interest for a range of human activities such as animal breeding, species conservation, or pest management. In particular, biological control programs should benefit from a thorough understanding of the causes and consequences of inbreeding because natural enemies experience repetitive bottlenecks during importation, laboratory rearing, and introduction. Predicting the effect of inbreeding in hymenopteran parasitoid wasps, frequently used in biological control programs, is nonetheless a difficult endeavor. In haplodiploid parasitoids, the purge of deleterious alleles via haploid males should reduce genetic load, but if these species also have complementary sex determination (CSD), abnormal diploid males will be produced, which may jeopardize the success of biological control introductions. Mastrus ridens is such a parasitoid wasp with CSD, introduced to control the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). We studied its life history traits in the laboratory under two conditions: inbred (full-sib) and outbred (nonsib) crosses, across five generations, to examine the consequences of inbreeding in this species. We found that in inbred lines, nonreproducing females live less, the number of daughters produced was lower, and sex ratio (proportion of males) and proportion of diploid males were higher. Diploid males were able to produce fertile daughters, but fewer than haploid males. Lineage survival was similar for inbred and outbred lines across the five generations. The most significant decrease in fitness was thus a consequence of the production of diploid males, but this effect was not as extreme as in most other species with CSD, due to the fertility of diploid males. This study highlights the importance of determining the type of sex determination in parasitoid wasps used for biological control, and the importance of maintaining genetic diversity in species with CSD when importation or augmentation is the goal.

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