Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) results from a complex synergy between genetic and environmental factors. Childhood abuse is one of risk factors. Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Adaptor Protein (NOS1AP) is a candidate gene of schizophrenia, which has similar pathophysiology to PPD. This study investigated the role of NOS1AP gene polymorphisms and a history of childhood abuse in predicting PPD features among male violent offenders in the Chinese Han population.
Four NOS1AP Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4145621, rs3751284, rs348624 and rs6680461 were genotyped in a sample of 423 male prisoners. Participant evaluations included demographic information, measures of childhood abuse (Child Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ), and PPD features (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4, PDQ-4). Participants were divided into a PPD group and non-PPD group assessed by PDQ-4.
Regression analysis revealed that emotional abuse, NOS1AP SNPs rs348624 and rs4145621 predicted PPD features (P < 0.05) among prison samples. Significant interactions between childhood abuse history and NOS1AP SNPs rs3751284 and rs6680461 were also observed. Individuals carrying the C allele of rs3751284 were susceptible to PPD features when exposed to higher levels of emotional neglect (P < 0.05); Individuals with the G allele of rs6680461 were susceptible to PPD features when exposed to higher levels of emotional, physical and sexual abuse (P < 0.01).
These results suggest that the interaction between childhood abuse and NOS1AP gene polymorphisms may have an influence on PPD features, at least in male violent offenders.
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