This meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotics on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and blood glucose changes in patients with hypertension.
We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and ProQuest databases using a combination of MeSH and free text, from the inception of these databases to 20 January 2020, with no language restrictions. The quantitative Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale method was used to assess the quality of the included studies. We used the random effects models to estimate the outcomes, with heterogeneity among the studies assessed using Cochran’s Q statistic. Fourteen included studies published between 2002 and 2019 were included in the meta-analysis, reporting results of 846 hypertension participants. A significant reduction in SBP by - 2.05 mmHg (95% CI - 3.87, - 0.24, P = 0.03), DBP by - 1.26 mmHg (95% CI - 2.51, - 0.004, P = 0.047), BMI by - 1.03 (95% CI - 1.28, - 0.97, P < 0.01), and blood glucose by - 0.18 mmol/L (95% CI - 0.30, - 0.05, P = 0.007) was observed following probiotic intervention. Our meta-analysis showed a modest but a significant reduction in SBP and DBP in patients with hypertension, particularly in those with diabetes mellitus, following probiotic supplementation. This effect was associated with treatment duration, dosage, and the age of subject, but was not associated with single or multiple strains usage. Additionally, probiotic supplement had a beneficial effect in reducing BMI and blood glucose.