The nervous system is one of the first systems to be affected during sepsis. Sepsis not only has a high risk of mortality, but could also lead to cerebral dysfunction and cognitive impairment in long-term survival patients. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) can interact with several ligands, and its activation triggers a series of cell signaling events, resulting in the hyperinflammatory condition related to sepsis. Recent studies show that elevated levels of S100B (RAGE ligand) are associated with the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. They also participate in inflammatory brain diseases and may lead to an increased activation of microglia and astrocytes, leading to neuronal death. This study aimed to determine the effect of S100B inhibition on the neuroinflammatory response in sepsis. Sepsis was induced in Wistar rats by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). There were three groups: Sham, CLP, and CLP + 10 μg/kg of monoclonal antibody (Anti-S100B) administered intracerebroventricularly. The animals were killed 30 days after sepsis following behavioral evaluation by open field, novel object recognition, and splash test. The hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amydgala were used for the determination of S100B and RAGE proteins by western blotting and for the evaluation of cytokine levels and verification of the number of microglial cells by immunohistochemistry. On day 30, both the Sham and CLP + anti-S100B groups were capable of recovering the habitual memory in the open field task. Regarding novel object recognition, Sham and CLP + anti-S100B groups increased the recognition index during the test session in comparison to the training session. There was a significant increase in the time of grooming in CLP + anti-S100B in comparison to the CLP group. There was a modulation of cytokine levels and immunohistochemistry showed that the CLP + anti-S100B group had a decrease in the number of microglial cells only in the hippocampus. These results helped to understand the role of S100B protein in the pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy and could be helpful to further experimental studies regarding this subject.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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