To investigate the effects of vaginal microecology and immune status on the pregnancy outcome of cervical cerclage.
The clinical data of 125 patients with cervical incompetence who underwent transvaginal cervical cerclage in our hospital from January 2018 to January 2021 were collected, based on which the associations of vaginal microecology and related immune cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) with the cervical cerclage outcome were explored.
All of the 125 patients had singleton pregnancies, who were aged 20-43 years, with a mean of (32.34 ± 5.17) years. The surgery was successful in 104 patients (full-term delivery or survival of premature infants), while unsuccessful in 21 patients (late miscarriage or death of premature infants), revealing a success rate of 83.20%. There were 70 full-term deliveries, 34 premature deliveries (28 survived while 6 died), and 15 late miscarriages. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the timing of surgery, gestational age of cerclage, preoperative cervical canal length, genital tract infections and preoperative invasive procedures between the successful and unsuccessful groups (P  0.05). According to the multivariate analysis results, cerclage timing and genital tract infections were independent risk factors for postoperative pregnancy failure (P < 0.05). The pathogen detection rates in the two groups of pregnant women were analyzed, finding significantly higher incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in the unsuccessful group than in the successful group (P < 0.05). Inter-group comparison revealed that the positive rates for vaginal microenvironmental factors (LE, NAG, SNA, HO and pH) were all significantly higher in the unsuccessful group than in the successful group (P < 0.05). Besides, the immune cytokine levels in the cervicovaginal secretions were also all significantly higher in the unsuccessful group than in the successful group (P < 0.05).
The pregnancy outcome of patients undergoing cervical cerclage is associated with the imbalance of vaginal microecology and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in cervicovaginal secretions.

© 2022. The Author(s).