We evaluated the efficacy and cardiovascular safety of roxadustat versus placebo by analyzing data pooled from three phase 3 studies of roxadustat in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD and CKD-related anemia.
In the three phase 3, double-blind studies of roxadustat versus placebo evaluating the treatment of CKD-related anemia in patients not requiring dialysis, the primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline in hemoglobin averaged over weeks 28-52, regardless of rescue therapy. The primary cardiovascular safety end point was a composite measure of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke). MACE plus (MACE+; MACE plus unstable angina and heart failure requiring hospitalization) and all-cause mortality were key secondary safety end points. These safety end points were adjudicated.
A total of 4277 patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD were randomized (roxadustat, =2391; placebo, =1886). Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups; the mean (SD) hemoglobin was 9.1 (0.7) g/dl and mean eGFR was 20 (12) ml/min per 1.73 m. Patients treated with roxadustat versus those treated with placebo showed a mean change from baseline in hemoglobin averaged over weeks 28-52, regardless of rescue therapy, of 1.9 versus 0.2 g/dl, a treatment difference of 1.7 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.7 to 1.8). Roxadustat reduced the need for red blood cell transfusion in the first 52 weeks versus placebo (6.1 versus 20.4 per 100 patient-exposure years, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.26; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.32). There were no increased risks of MACE (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.27), MACE+ (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.21), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.26), or individual MACE+ components in patients treated with roxadustat versus those treated with placebo.
Roxadustat was more effective than placebo at increasing hemoglobin in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD and anemia, while decreasing transfusion rate and being noninferior to placebo with respect to risk of MACE.
A Study of FG-4592 for the Treatment of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Not Receiving Dialysis, NCT01750190; Roxadustat in the Treatment of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Not Requiring Dialysis (ALPS), NCT01887600; Safety and Efficacy Study of Roxadustat to Treat Anemia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Not on Dialysis, NCT02174627.

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