Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 2017 01 10() pii S1081-1206(16)31357-6
Egg oral immunotherapy is effective but time consuming.
To assess the efficacy and safety of egg rush oral immunotherapy (ROIT) with a targeted dose equivalent to a raw egg white.
Thirty-three persistent egg allergic children confirmed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) were randomized to receive egg ROIT immediately after randomization (ROIT1 group), or to continue an egg avoidance diet for 5 months after randomization (control group [CG]). A 5-day build-up phase starting with the highest single tolerated dose at baseline DBPCFC was scheduled and several doses administered daily until achieving a dose of approximately 2,808 mg of egg white protein. In the maintenance phase, patients ate an undercooked egg every 48 hours for 5 months. The CG participants who failed the DBPCFC at 5 months began active treatment. Children from the ROIT1 group plus children from the CG who failed a second DBPCFC at 5 months and then received egg ROIT were randomized to the ROIT2 group. Adverse events (AEs) and immune marker evolution were recorded.
A total of 17 (89%) of 19 children in the ROIT1 group and no CG patients were desensitized at 5 months (P < .001). A total of 31 (97%) of the 32 children in the ROIT2 group completed the build-up phase in a median of 3 days (range, 1-14 days), and 30 (94%) of 32 maintained desensitization at 5 months. From baseline to 5 months of treatment, skin prick test, specific IgE, and specific IgE/IgG4 ratio to egg fractions significantly decreased, whereas specific IgG4 increased. During the build-up phase, AEs occurred in 69% of patients (50% had ≤2 AEs) and 31% of doses (2% severe, 55% gastrointestinal). Lower threshold dose in the DBPCFC and higher egg white and ovalbumin specific IgE levels at baseline revealed an association with a higher rate of AEs. CONCLUSION
The proposed 5-day egg ROIT desensitized 94% of the allergic patients, with most AEs being mild or moderate.