In patients with wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA), anaphylactic shock occurs frequently, therefore avoidance of wheat products is recommended. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of long-term omalizumab treatment for adult patients with WDEIA.
In this phase 2, multicentre single-arm trial, 20 adult patients with WDEIA were enrolled (UMIN 000019250). All patients were administered 150-600 mg of omalizumab subcutaneously and evaluations (basophil activation and blood examination) were performed at regular intervals during administration period (0-48 weeks) and observation period (48-68 weeks). Primary endpoint was proportion of the patients who achieved a basophil activation rate below 10% with fractionated wheat preparations, and secondary endpoint was proportion of the patients with no allergic reactions after wheat products ingestion.
During the omalizumab treatment, more than 80% of the patients achieved the basophil activation rate less than 10% against all fractionated wheat preparations, and 68.8% of the patients who achieved the primary endpoint experienced no allergic reaction. During the observation period, the proportion of the patients who achieved a basophil activation rate below 10% decreased gradually, and the proportion of patients with positive allergic reactions increased gradually thereafter and reached maximum of 46.7%. Severe adverse events were not observed during the study.
Long-term omalizumab treatment is safe and effective for adult patients with WDEIA when assessed by basophil activation rate with wheat allergens as well as allergic reactions after lifting of restrictions on wheat intake. However, this is not enough to achieve desensitization.

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