While cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis (AU) patients often require glaucoma surgery, the effectiveness of systemic anti-viral in long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) control is not well established. The study was done for the Identification of the 2-year efficacy and safety of oral valganciclovir in CMV AU with uncontrolled IOP.
One eye from each of 17 immunocompetent PCR-proven patients with CMV AU who received a single course of oral valganciclovir for 20–148 days for medically uncontrolled IOP during 2008–2018 were identified.
Median baseline IOP and IOP-lowering medication were 27.0 mm Hg (IQR: 22.9–31.0 mm Hg), and 4.0, respectively. IOP was significantly lower than baseline from 2 weeks to 12 months and at 21 and 24 months after starting valganciclovir (p=0.001 to 0.041, Wilcoxon sign-rank test), with 16.9–46.0% median IOP reduction. Seven (41.2%) and six (35.3%) patients had IOP≤21 mm Hg with same, or reduced, topical medications by 12 and 24 months, respectively. Median time to IOP-lowering intervention or second course of valganciclovir was 12.4 months. There was no serious medication-related adverse event. Common side effects included reduced monocyte count (9 patients) and deranged renal function/electrolytes (5 patients). IOP spike and wound leak occurred in 35.5% and 29.4% of patients, respectively, after diagnostic aqueous tap.
The conclusion of this study was that in CMV AU with uncontrolled IOP, >1/3 of the patients avoided glaucoma surgery over 2 years with a course of oral valganciclovir.