PloS one 2017 10 1212(10) e0186180 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0186180
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) are often used in the treatment of cystoid macular edema (CME) in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients. The aim of this meta-analysis is to gain a better understanding of the overall efficacy of CAI treatment.
Databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies were clinical trials of patients with RP assigned topical or oral CAIs such as dorzolamide and acetazolamide. Changes in central macular thickness (CMT) by OCT in μm and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in log MAR equivalents were extracted and results compared between baseline and after treatment.
11 clinical reports were identified which included a total of 194 patients (358 eyes) available for analysis, with 59 patients (115 eyes) assigned oral CAI treatment and 135 patients (243 eyes) assigned topical CAI treatment. The combined results showed a significant reduction of macular edema, as calculated by baseline and final central macular thickness (CMT) based on OCT examination (46.02μm, 95%CI: -60.96, -31.08, I2 = 65%). However, the effect on visual acuity was inconsistent across studies.
Based on non randomized controlled clinical studies, RP patients with CME who were treated with CAIs had better anatomical outcomes, but the effect on visual acuity was contradictory across studies. Multicenter prospective randomized controlled trials would be ideal to definitively test its clinical efficacy in RP patients.