European journal of pharmacology 2017 05 31811() 155-163 pii 10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.05.060
Amyloid fibrils, which are present in semen, were considered to be a cause of topical vaginal gel ineffectiveness in vivo after microbicides failed as HIV-1 prophylaxis. Therefore, it was necessary to determine whether a dendrimer was suitable for further evaluation in an in vitro model of semen-enhanced viral infection (SEVI). We demonstrated that SEVI in TZM.bl cell cultures increased the infectivity of R5-HIV-1NL(AD8), pTHRO.c and pCH058.c isolates, causing higher IC50 values for two polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers, G2-STE16 and G3-S16. However, both dendrimers maintained protection rates of 90% at non-toxic concentrations. When dendrimers were combined with Tenofovir/Maraviroc (TDF/MVC), the anti-HIV-1 effect remained at a minimum IC50 increase between 1- and 7-fold in the presence of amyloid fibrils. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), IC50 values were slightly influenced by the presence of semen. In brief, dendrimers combined with antiretrovirals showed a synergistic effect. This result plays a crucial role in new microbicide formulations, as it overcomes the negative effects of amyloid fibrils.