To examine the efficacy of creatine (Cr) supplementation and any sex differences during supervised whole-body resistance training (RT) on properties of bone and muscle in older adults.
Seventy participants (39 males, 31 females; mean age ± standard deviation: 58 ± 6y) were randomized to supplement with Cr (0.1 g·kg-1·d-1) or placebo (Pl) during RT (3 d·wk-1 for 1 year). Bone geometry (radius and tibia) and muscle area and density (forearm and lower leg) were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.
Compared to Pl, Cr increased or maintained total bone area in the distal tibia (Cr: Δ +17 ± 27 mm2; Pl: Δ -1 ± 22 mm2; P = 0.031) and tibial shaft (Cr: Δ 0 ± 9 mm2; Pl: Δ -5 ± 7 mm2; P = 0.032). Males on Cr increased trabecular (Δ +28 ± 31 mm2; P < 0.001) and cortical bone areas in the tibia (Δ +4 ± 4 mm2; P < 0.05) whereas males on Pl increased trabecular bone density (Δ +2 ± 2 mg/cm3; P 0.05). Cr increased lower leg muscle density (Δ +0.83 ± 1.15 mg/cm3; P = 0.016) compared to Pl (Δ -0.16 ± 1.56 mg/cm3), with no changes in the forearm muscle.
One year of Cr supplementation and RT had some favorable effects on measures of bone area and muscle density in older adults.

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