Diabetes mellitus (DM) plays an important role in restenosis and late in-stent thrombosis (ST). The current study using optical coherence tomography (OCT) aims to compare target lesion neointima in patients with or without diabetes after zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) treatment.
OCT images of 90,212 struts and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in 62 patients (32 with DM and 30 without DM) with 69 de novo coronary lesions (34 DM and 35 non-DM) both after ZES implantation and 12 ± 1 month angiographic follow-up were recorded. Patient characteristics, lesion characteristics, clinical outcomes, and OCT findings including neointimal thickness, coverage, malapposition, and intimal morphology were analyzed.
Baseline patient characteristics and lesion characteristics data were similar between the two groups. Higher neointimal thickness (0.14 ± 0.09 mm vs. 0.09 ± 0.04 mm, p = 0.021), more neovascularization (3.03 ± 6.24 vs. 0.52 ± 1.87, p = 0.017) and higher incidence of layered signal pattern (12.19 ± 19.91% vs. 4.28 ± 9.02%, p = 0.049) were observed in diabetic lesions comparing with non-diabetic lesions. No differences were found in malapposition, uncovered percentage, and thrombus between the two groups (all p > 0.05). Occurrence of clinical adverse events was also similar during the follow-up period (p > 0.05).
Although more neointimal proliferation and more neovascularization were found in diabetic coronary lesions when compared with non-diabetic lesions, treatment with ZES showed similar stent malapposition rate at 1-year follow-up. The data indicated that ZES treatment could possibly be effective in treating diabetic coronary lesions.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01747356.