Focal seizures are associated with various co-morbidities. Seizure disorders also affect the quality of life of the patients. A huge proportion of patients continue to have uncontrolled seizures despite the availability of numerous antiepileptic drugs. Novel therapeutic targets too, have failed to overcome this problem. Therefore, drugs acting on conventional targets are being explored. Perampanel is one such drug. The present study aimed to assess its efficacy, safety, and effect on quality of life and cognition in patients aged 12 years and above.
Database search was conducted using keywords perampanel, partial seizures and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Single and double blinded RCTs were included in the analysis. The primary outcomes assessed were 50% responder rate and seizure freedom rates. Secondary outcomes assessed were Improvement in Clinical Global Improvement for Change (CGI-C), number of patients who experienced adverse events, number of patients who withdrew from trials, adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile from Vigibase, long term safety, quality of Life (QoL) assessment and cognitive assessment, especially in adolescents. The Risk ratios (RR) were calculated for these parameters.
24 full text articles were obtained out of a total 421 studies. From these seven double blind randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Perampanel treated patients showed higher 50% responder rates than those treated with placebo. The Risk Ratios (RRs) were 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.79], 1.83 [95% CI 1.51 – 2.22] and 1.81 [95% CI 1.45-2.27] for the 4 mg per day, 8 mg once daily and 12 mg once daily subgroups of perampanel respectively. The RRs for the seizure freedom rates were 4.52 [95% CI 1.30-15.73], 3.65 [95% CI 1.40-9.52] and 2.14 [95% CI 1.11-4.11] for 4 mg per day, 8 mg once daily and 12 mg once daily subgroups of perampanel respectively. There was a significantly higher risk of TEAEs with the 8 mg and 12 mg doses of perampanel as compared to that with placebo. Number of patients who withdrew from the trials due to adverse events was statistically significant in only the 12 mg subgroup of perampanel in comparison to that with placebo group.
Perampanel was observed to be an effective add on drug for treating pharmacoresistant focal seizures. The patients achieved higher 50% response rates and freedom from seizures with its use. Tolerability of perampanel was more at lower doses.

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