To evaluate the viability of the electrochemical dissolution of NiTi fragments in root canals of extracted human maxillary molars, using two electrodes and the solution restricted to a small reservoir coupled to the pulp chamber. The primary hypothesis was that this method enables the reduction of the fragment volume and reestablishment of the root canal path with a size 08 K-file, both in simulated canals and in extracted human maxillary molars.
Fragments of F1 ProTaper instruments were polarized in simulated root canals and in distobuccal root canals of extracted maxillary molars using a new method, with the solution restricted to a small acrylic microcell coupled to each resin block or pulp chamber. Two electrodes were used, where one was kept in contact with the intracanal fragment and another was positioned in the solution present in the acrylic microcell. After the tests, a size 08 K-file was used passively to verify the possibility of bypassing the fragment, which was also confirmed by radiographic analysis. Micro-CT analysis of the teeth was used before and after fragment dissolution to evaluate the volume, length and porosity of the fragments. The D’Agostino-Pearson normality test was used to verify the distribution of the data. A paired t-test (p < 0.05) was used to compare the volume, length and porosity of the fragments before and after the dissolution tests.
After dissolution, all fragments could be bypassed with a size 08 K-file in both simulated canals and in extracted teeth. The dissolution process did not result in significant reduction of either the fragment length nor the fragment porosity. However, it resulted in a significant reduction of the fragment volume (paired t-test, p < 0.05).
The electrochemical dissolution of NiTi file fragments in root canals of extracted human maxillary molars using two electrodes and the solution restricted to a small reservoir coupled to the pulp chamber resulted in a significant reduction of the fragment volume. The reestablishment of the root canal path with the passive insertion of size 08 K-files was possible in all samples after the tests, both in simulated canals and in extracted teeth.

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