. The evaluation of individuals with fibromyalgia is challenging. Electroencephalography is a promising resource for identifying physiological biomarkers in fibromyalgia, contributing to its diagnosis. . To review studies involving the use of electroencephalography to evaluate individuals with fibromyalgia. . A systematic review of studies published in the PubMed, Lilacs, and SciELO databases from 2001 to 2020 was conducted. The keywords used were electroencephalogram, electroencephalography, and fibromyalgia. The database search complied with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. . A total of 136 articles were identified after a database search using the keywords “fibromyalgia” AND “electroencephalography”, and 131 articles were found using the keywords “fibromyalgia” AND “electroencephalogram” (EEG). In the end, 20 articles remained after applying the exclusion criteria. The data was organized into subcategories related to the form of use, protocols, electroencephalographic findings in patients with fibromyalgia, and the EEG analysis method. . Electroencephalography is a promising method for identifying and characterizing biomarkers for fibromyalgia.