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Elevation of Plasmin-α2-plasmin Inhibitor Complex Predicts the Diagnosis of Systemic AL Amyloidosis in Patients with Monoclonal Protein.

Elevation of Plasmin-α2-plasmin Inhibitor Complex Predicts the Diagnosis of Systemic AL Amyloidosis in Patients with Monoclonal Protein.
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Ishiguro K, Hayashi T, Yokoyama Y, Aoki Y, Onodera K, Ikeda H, Ishida T, Nakase H,


Ishiguro K, Hayashi T, Yokoyama Y, Aoki Y, Onodera K, Ikeda H, Ishida T, Nakase H, (click to view)

Ishiguro K, Hayashi T, Yokoyama Y, Aoki Y, Onodera K, Ikeda H, Ishida T, Nakase H,

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Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) 2017 10 11() doi 10.2169/internalmedicine.8999-17
Abstract

Objective The complication of systemic immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis in patients with monoclonal immunoglobulin affects the prognosis, but amyloid deposition in tissues is sometimes difficult to detect due to bleeding tendencies and preferential distributions. However, fibrinolysis is known to be exacerbated in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis specifically. We therefore explored new biomarkers for predicting a diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis focusing on coagulation and fibrinolysis markers. Methods We reviewed the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with serum monoclonal protein, including primary systemic AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma (MM), treated at our hospital between January 2008 and December 2014. Results Among several biomarkers, only the serum level of plasmin-α2-plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC) in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis (n=26) at the diagnosis was significantly higher than in patients with MM without AL amyloidosis (n=26) (mean ± standard deviation, 3.69±2.82 μg/mL vs. 1.23±0.97 μg/mL, p<0.01). The cut-off for predicting a diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis in patients with serum monoclonal protein was 1.72 μg/mL with 84.6% sensitivity and 80.8% specificity. Hepatic involvement resulted in a significantly higher PIC level than no involvement in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis. The serum PIC level was also associated with the hematological response of systemic AL amyloidosis. Conclusion PIC is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and management of patients with systemic AL amyloidosis.

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