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Emerging roles of calpain proteolytic systems in macrophage cholesterol handling.

Emerging roles of calpain proteolytic systems in macrophage cholesterol handling.
Author Information (click to view)

Miyazaki T, Miyazaki A,


Miyazaki T, Miyazaki A, (click to view)

Miyazaki T, Miyazaki A,

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Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 2017 04 21() doi 10.1007/s00018-017-2528-7
Abstract

Calpains are Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular proteases that play central roles in the post-translational processing of functional proteins. In mammals, calpain proteolytic systems comprise the endogenous inhibitor calpastatin as well as 15 homologues of the catalytic subunits and two homologues of the regulatory subunits. Recent pharmacological and gene targeting studies in experimental animal models have revealed the contribution of conventional calpains, which consist of the calpain-1 and -2 isozymes, to atherosclerotic diseases. During atherogenesis, conventional calpains facilitate the CD36-dependent uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and block cholesterol efflux through ATP-binding cassette transporters in lesional macrophages, allowing the expansion of lipid-enriched atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, calpain-6, an unconventional non-proteolytic calpain, in macrophages reportedly potentiates pinocytotic uptake of native LDL, and attenuates the efferocytic clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cell corpses from the lesions. Herein, we discuss the recent progress that has been made in our understanding of how calpain contributes to atherosclerosis, in particular focusing on macrophage cholesterol handling.

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