The current study offers an overview of the potential of several systemic and topical therapies in chronic ocular allergies and dry eye disease (DED). The impact of ocular inflammatory disease on the front surface includes a wide range of disorders that are usually underreported. This can lead to underdiagnosis and poor management by healthcare practitioners such as allergists and/or ophthalmologists, who frequently treat these prevalent illnesses. Due to the present scarcity of therapeutic choices, healthcare practitioners are constantly on the lookout for alternative therapies that may aid in the successful management of the diseases. Recent developments in the immunopathophysiology of ocular surface diseases have identified new prospective targets and therapeutic methods for the treatment of DED and ocular allergies, which may involve a variety of immunobiological modulators. These modulators have focused on modulating the Th1 and Th2 immune-mediated inflammatory pathways, which suppress cytokines, antibodies, and other cell surface indicators.
Recent discoveries regarding the pathophysiology of DED and ocular allergy have led to a better knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes of ocular surface illnesses, potentially leading to novel immunomodulatory targets for anterior surface ocular disorders. New topical glucocorticoids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, IL-1 antagonists, IL-5 antagonists, IL-4/IL-13 antagonists, integrin antagonists, and quinolone derivatives look promising.
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