Eosinophils are granular cells of the innate immune system that are found in almost all vertebrates and some invertebrates. Knowledge of their wide-ranging roles in health and disease has largely been attained through studies in mice and humans. Although eosinophils are typically associated with helminth infections and allergic diseases such as asthma, there is building evidence that beneficial homeostatic eosinophils residing in specific niches are important for tissue development, remodelling and metabolic control. In recent years, the importance of immune cells in the regulation of adipose tissue homeostasis has been a focal point of research efforts. There is an abundance of anti-inflammatory innate immune cells in lean white adipose tissue, including macrophages, eosinophils and group 2 innate lymphoid cells, which promote energy homeostasis and stimulate the development of thermogenic beige adipocytes. This review will evaluate evidence for the role of adipose-resident eosinophils in local tissue homeostasis, beiging and systemic metabolism, highlighting where more research is needed to establish the specific effector functions that adipose eosinophils perform in response to different internal and external cues.
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