The epidemiology of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is ever evolving. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical, microbiological, susceptibility, and outcome data of IFI in Indian patients to identify determinants of infection and 30-day mortality. Proven and probable/putative IFI (defined according to modified European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group and AspICU criteria) from April 2017 to December 2018 were evaluated in a prospective observational study. All recruited patients were antifungal naïve ( = 3300). There were 253 episodes of IFI (7.6%) with 134 (52.9%) proven and 119 (47%) probable/putative infections. There were four major clusters of infection: invasive candidiasis (IC) ( = 53, 20.9%), cryptococcosis ( = 34, 13.4%), invasive aspergillosis (IA) ( = 103, 40.7%), and mucormycosis ( = 62, 24.5%). The significant risk factors were high particulate efficiency air (HEPA) room admission, ICU admission, prolonged exposure to corticosteroids, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease (CLD), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), coronary arterial disease (CAD), trauma, and multiorgan involvement ( 1). The all-cause 30-day mortality was 43.4% ( = 110). It varied by fungal group: 52.8% (28/53) in IC, 58.8% (20/34) in cryptococcosis, 39.8% (41/103) in IA, and 33.9% (21/62) in mucormycosis. HEPA room, ICU admission for IC; HEPA rooms, diabetes mellitus for cryptococcosis; hematological malignancies, chronic kidney disease (CKD), sepsis, galactomannan antigen index value ≥1 for IA and nodules; and ground glass opacities on radiology for mucormycosis were significant predictors of death (odds ratio >1). High minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for azoles were observed in , , , , , , , and . For echinocandin, high MIC values were seen in , , , and . This study highlights the shift in epidemiology and also raises concern of high MICs to azoles among our isolates. It warrants regular surveillance, which can provide the local clinically correlated microbiological data to clinicians and which might aid in guiding patient treatment.
About The Expert
Viveka P Jyotsna