To evaluate the national trends in pediatric severe sepsis in the United States from 2003 to 2014.
For this study, we included nonoverlapping years of Kids Inpatient database and National Inpatient Sample database while including hospitalizations of children between 1 and 20 years of age from more than 4200 hospitals across the United States. We identified patient hospitalizations with severe sepsis using specific ICD codes and modified Angus Criteria. Trend analysis of various factors associated with severe sepsis was calculated using the Cochrane-Armitage test. Associated foci of infection and comorbid conditions were identified using specific ICD codes, and a multivariate regression analysis with death as outcome variable was done to evaluate for in hospital predictors of mortality.
Totally, 109,026 episodes of severe sepsis were identified during the study period between 2003 and 2014. Incidence of severe sepsis hospitalizations increased by 2.5 times (0.64-1.57 per 10,000 population) over the study period with notable concurrent significant decrease in mortality by more than 50%. Lower age, African American, Hispanic ethnicity, complex neurological conditions, infective endocarditis, immunodeficient states including primary immunodeficiency disorder, HIV, burns, malignancy and transplant status are associated with mortality. There is a significant increase in use of healthcare resources (P < 0.001) with mean charges of 94,966$ despite a notable decrease in mean length of stay (22 vs. 16 days, P < 0.001) over the study period.
Incidence of pediatric severe sepsis is high leading to a significant use of healthcare resources. This study provides a detailed analysis of associated inpatient factors and comorbidities associated with mortality.