Asia-Pacific journal of clinical oncology 2017 08 1614(1) 16-22 doi 10.1111/ajco.12757
Cancer is the most common cause of death in Thailand, with the mortality almost doubled during 1998-2011 (from 48.4 to 95.2 per 100 000). The estimated number of new cancer cases in 2011 was 112 392. Our review provides baseline data on the current epidemiological situation with head and neck (HN) cancer in Thailand based on reports of the National Cancer Registry and findings from local and international publications. Collectively, HN cancer approaches age-standardized rate (ASR) incidence of 15.7 and 10.7 per 100 000 males and females, respectively, and is ranked among the top five dominant cancers in Thailand. The leading HN malignancies in men are oral (ASR incidence 4.6 per 100 000), nasopharyngeal (ASR 2.8) and laryngeal (ASR 2.7) cancers, while the most common cancers in women are thyroid (ASR 5.1) and oral (ASR 3.2) carcinomas. Some local habits (betel quid chewing, traditional cigarette smoking and alcohol intake) are associated with the high incidence of oral cancer in Northeast Thailand. Despite important prognostic significance, the role of human papillomavirus infection in various HN cancers from Thailand has been scarcely addressed. There is a growing incidence of thyroid cancer over the last two decades. The Thai population overall, compared to worldwide rates of HN malignancies, has a lower incidence of laryngeal and thyroid cancers but higher incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer.