Sepsis is a life-threatening disorder disease defined as infection-induced dysregulated immune responses and multiple organ dysfunction. The imbalance between hyperinflammation and immunosuppression is a crucial feature of sepsis immunity. Epigenetic modifications, including histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA, play essential roles in regulating sepsis immunity through epi-information independent of the DNA sequence. In recent years, the mechanisms of histone modification in sepsis have received increasing attention, with ongoing discoveries of novel types of histone modifications. Due to the capacity for prolonged effects on immune cells, histone modifications can induce immune cell reprogramming and participate in the long-term immunosuppressed state of sepsis. Herein, we systematically review current mechanisms of histone modifications involved in the regulation of sepsis, summarize their role in sepsis from an immune perspective and provide potential therapeutic opportunities targeting histone modifications in sepsis treatment.© 2023. The Author(s).
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