Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a DNA virus with oncogenic potential, especially in immunocompromised patients. EBV can promote smooth muscle proliferation, resulting in EBV-associated smooth muscle tumors (EBV-SMT).
We report a case of a 10-year-old child with end-stage renal disease secondary to hypoplastic crossed and fused kidneys who underwent kidney transplantation. EBV serology was unknown for the donor and negative for the recipient; three months after he had a primary EBV infection. Two years after the transplantation, percutaneous nephrostomy was performed because of a drop in the estimated glomerular filtration rate and severe dilatation of the graft. Nephrography showed contrast enhancement of the pelvis of the graft kidney and proximal ureter, with a clear blockage at the level of the mid ureter and no passage towards the bladder. A 1.5-cm tumor was found causing intraluminal compression of the mid ureter.
Complete resection of the tumor and distal ureter was performed leaving a short proximal ureter. A tension-free uretero-ureteroanastomoses was achieved using the native ureter. There were no surgical complications. Histologic evaluation showed spindle-shaped muscle cells, moderate pleomorphism, and inflammatory infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for muscle-specific actin. Epstein-Barr encoding region (EBER) in situ hybridization was positive, confirming the diagnosis of EBV-associated SMT.
EBV-SMT is an exceedingly rare oncological entity that may develop in either the graft or any other organ. The clinical findings are location related. EBV seroconversion following transplantation might be a risk factor for the development of SMT in solid organ recipients.