EGFR mutations are common in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Erlotinib is the standard first-line therapy given to patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. However, some studies have suggested that erlotinib, in combination with bevacizumab, could enhance the treatment’s efficacy. This study aims to evaluate the effect of erlotinib with and without bevacizumab in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

This phase 2 randomized clinical trial included a total of 88 patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R mutated NSCLC of stage 4. The patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive erlotinib daily alone or with intravenous bevacizumab. The primary outcome of the study was progression-free survival, along with an objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and adverse events.

When compared with erlotinib only, erlotinib plus bevacizumab had no significant difference in progression-free survival (17.9 months for combination and 13.5 months for erlotinib only). The ORR was 81% in the combination group and 83% in the erlotinib only group, whereas OS was 32.4 months in the combination group and 50.6 months in the erlotinib only group. Adverse events were more prevalent in the combination group.

The research concluded that adding bevacizumab to erlotinib did not increase the PFS and OS when compared with treatment with erlotinib only.