In Sudan, cancer a common health challenge, is the leading cause of death after malaria and viral pneumonia. The aim of the review is to determine the risk factors associated with esophageal cancer (EC) among Sudanese population.
All published online data concerning EC epidemiology, diagnosis, and management in Sudan were studied.
The prevalence of EC in Sudan is ranked fourth among cancer types in males and fifth in females. The squamous cell carcinoma is more predominant than adenocarcinoma. The dietary, dysplasia and teeth loss, cigarette smoking, age, sex, GERD, genetic and environmental interactions remain a risk for developing EC in clinical practice. A significant challenge for treatment is that most of EC patients were often diagnosed in advanced stages due to the lack of early clinical symptoms. Management of EC depends on patient fitness and tumor stage, endoscopic removal was used for early tumors, while chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, surgical resection, or combinations of these were used for advanced tumors. Despite improvements in the management and treatment of EC patients, the general outcome remains very poor. Furthermore, using molecular techniques to better understand the etiology of EC, it may assist in identifying complicated and critical issues and improve therapy towards a new treatment strategy.
The remarkable factors associated with EC among Sudanese are geographical variation, environmental factors, ethnic differences, dietary and social habits.