In pediatric tumors, immunotherapy exhibits less toxicity than chemotherapy and radiation. The current study aims to identify potential immune targets in immune-related genes of C-C motif chemokine ligand genes (CCLs) and C-C motif chemokine receptors (CCRs) in childhood osteosarcoma (OS) and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of childhood OS.
Firstly, we identified immune-related genes in CCLs and CCRs, these genes were used for functional annotation and interaction analysis. Then, the prognostic value of these genes was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate COX regression model. And the potential relationship between risk score and immune infiltrating cells was identified. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis was used to determine the underlying molecular mechanism of OS. Immune-related genes in CCLs and CCRs are inextricably linked.
The results of survival analysis of these genes show that CCL5, CCL8, CCR4, and CCR5 are significantly associated with the prognosis of childhood OS. The combined effect survival analysis shows that the co-high expression of these 4 genes has a good prognosis for childhood OS. A prognostic signature model was constructed based on the 4 genes mentioned above, and the result of time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves showed that this model was a good predictor of childhood OS 3- and 5-year prognosis. In addition, the risk score of the constructed prognostic signature model was closely related to immune infiltration. We also found that CCL5, CCL8, and CCR5 may affect the prognosis of OS through complex regulation among Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family signaling cascade, and nuclear factor-kappaB pathway, whereas CCR4 affects the prognosis of OS by regulating eukaryotic translation.
CCL5, CCL8, CCR4, and CCR5 are potential prognostic markers for the prognosis of childhood OS, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of childhood OS have been identified.