Estimating the lung cancer disease burden can provide evidence for public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers. This study uses claim data from lung cancer patients for 2006-2015 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to estimate the lung cancer burdens attributable to residential radon in Korea using disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and patients’ annual economic burden with societal perspectives using the cost-of-illness (COI) method. The number of patients increased during our study period (from 35,866 to 59,168). The disease burden and that attributable to residential radon, respectively, increased from 517.57 to 695.74 and 64.62 (95%; CIs 61.33-67.69) to 86.99 (95%; CIs 82.7-91.1) DALYs per 100,000 patients. The percentage of years lost due to disability among the DALY doubled from 8% to 17%. The cost for all the patients was US$2.33 billion, with US$292 (95%; CIs 278-306) million attributable to residential radon. During the last decade, the lung cancer disease burden increased by 1.34 times, with a doubled percentage of non-fatal burden and average annual growth rate of 9.5% of the total cost. Hence, the burden and cost of lung cancer in Korean provinces have been steadily increasing. The findings could be used as input data for future cost-effectiveness analysis of policies regarding radon reduction.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.