Left ventricular stroke work is an important prognostic marker to analyze cardiac function. Standard values for children are, however, missing. For clinicians, standards can help to improve the treatment decision of heart failures. For engineers, they can help to optimize medical devices. In this study, we estimated the left ventricular stroke work for children based on modeled pressure-volume loops. A lumped parameter model was fitted to clinical data of 340 healthy children. Reference curves for standard values were created over age, weight, and height. Left ventricular volume was measured with 3D echocardiography, while maximal ventricular pressure was approximated with a regression model from the literature. For validation of this method, we used 18 measurements acquired by a conductance catheter in 11 patients. The method demonstrated a low absolute mean difference of 0.033 J (SD: 0.031 J) for stroke work between measurement and estimation, while the percentage error was 21.66 %. According to the resulting reference curves, left ventricular stroke work of newborns has a median of 0.06 J and increases to 1.15 J at the age of 18 years. Stroke work increases over weight and height in a similar trend. The percentile curves depict the distribution. We demonstrate how reference curves can be used for quantification of differences and comparison in patients.
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