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Euglena gracilis Z and its carbohydrate storage substance relieve arthritis symptoms by modulating Th17 immunity.

Euglena gracilis Z and its carbohydrate storage substance relieve arthritis symptoms by modulating Th17 immunity.
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Suzuki K, Nakashima A, Igarashi M, Saito K, Konno M, Yamazaki N, Takimoto H,


Suzuki K, Nakashima A, Igarashi M, Saito K, Konno M, Yamazaki N, Takimoto H, (click to view)

Suzuki K, Nakashima A, Igarashi M, Saito K, Konno M, Yamazaki N, Takimoto H,

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PloS one 2018 02 0113(2) e0191462 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0191462
Abstract

Euglena gracilis Z is a microorganism classified as a microalga and is used as a food or nutritional supplement. Paramylon, the carbohydrate storage substance of E. gracilis Z, is reported to affect the immunological system. This study evaluated the symptom-relieving effects of E. gracilis Z and paramylon in rheumatoid arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. The efficacy of both substances was assessed based on clinical arthritis signs, as well as cytokine (interleukin [IL]-17, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ) levels in lymphoid tissues. Additionally, the knee joints were harvested and histopathologically examined. The results showed that both substances reduced the transitional changes in the visual assessment score of arthritis symptoms compared with those in the control group, indicating their symptom-relieving effects on rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, E. gracilis Z and paramylon significantly reduced the secretion of the cytokines, IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-γ. The histopathological examination of the control group revealed edema, inflammation, cell hyperplasia, granulation tissue formation, fibrosis, and exudate in the synovial membrane, as well as pannus formation and articular cartilage destruction in the femoral trochlear groove. These changes were suppressed in both treatment groups. Particularly, the E. gracilis Z group showed no edema, inflammation, and fibrosis of the synovial membrane, or pannus formation and destruction of articular cartilage in the femoral trochlear groove. Furthermore, E. gracilis Z and paramylon exhibited symptom-relieving effects on rheumatoid arthritis and suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-γ. These effects were likely mediated by the regulatory activities of E. gracilis Z and paramylon on Th17 immunity. In addition, the symptom-relieving effects of both substances were comparable, which suggests that paramylon is the active component of Euglena gracilis Z.

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