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Evaluating CHARGE syndrome in congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism patients harboring CHD7 variants.

Evaluating CHARGE syndrome in congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism patients harboring CHD7 variants.
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Xu C, Cassatella D, van der Sloot AM, Quinton R, Hauschild M, De Geyter C, Flück C, Feller K, Bartholdi D, Nemeth A, Halperin I, Pekic Djurdjevic S, Maeder P, Papadakis G, Dwyer AA, Marino L, Favre L, Pignatelli D, Niederländer NJ, Acierno J, Pitteloud N,


Xu C, Cassatella D, van der Sloot AM, Quinton R, Hauschild M, De Geyter C, Flück C, Feller K, Bartholdi D, Nemeth A, Halperin I, Pekic Djurdjevic S, Maeder P, Papadakis G, Dwyer AA, Marino L, Favre L, Pignatelli D, Niederländer NJ, Acierno J, Pitteloud N, (click to view)

Xu C, Cassatella D, van der Sloot AM, Quinton R, Hauschild M, De Geyter C, Flück C, Feller K, Bartholdi D, Nemeth A, Halperin I, Pekic Djurdjevic S, Maeder P, Papadakis G, Dwyer AA, Marino L, Favre L, Pignatelli D, Niederländer NJ, Acierno J, Pitteloud N,

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Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 2017 11 16() doi 10.1038/gim.2017.197
Abstract

PurposeCongenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), a rare genetic disease caused by gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency, can also be part of complex syndromes (e.g., CHARGE syndrome). CHD7 mutations were reported in 60% of patients with CHARGE syndrome, and in 6% of CHH patients. However, the definition of CHD7 mutations was variable, and the associated CHARGE signs in CHH were not systematically examined.MethodsRare sequencing variants (RSVs) in CHD7 were identified through exome sequencing in 116 CHH probands, and were interpreted according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. Detailed phenotyping was performed in CHH probands who were positive for CHD7 RSVs, and genotype-phenotype correlations were evaluated.ResultsOf the CHH probands, 16% (18/116) were found to harbor heterozygous CHD7 RSVs, and detailed phenotyping was performed in 17 of them. Of CHH patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CHD7 variants, 80% (4/5) were found to exhibit multiple CHARGE features, and 3 of these patients were reclassified as having CHARGE syndrome. In contrast, only 8% (1/12) of CHH patients with nonpathogenic CHD7 variants exhibited multiple CHARGE features (P = 0.01).ConclusionPathogenic or likely pathogenic CHD7 variants rarely cause isolated CHH. Therefore a detailed clinical investigation is indicated to clarify the diagnosis (CHH versus CHARGE) and to optimize clinical management.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.197.

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