Researchers analyzed current literature on assessing residency candidates, focusing on establishing objective assessments of applicant potential in light of the announcement that the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 exam would move to pass/fail reporting.

Among the essential factors utilized to evaluate applicants are references from attending urologists, Step 1 scores, general academic achievement, and research publications. The average number of applications submitted per applicant has increased significantly, with both applicants and residency directors expressing support for restricting the number of applications that may be filed. Furthermore, there is an increase in initiatives to foster diversity to enhance urological treatment and representation. Despite advances in standardizing interview standards, improper questioning continues to be a problem.

Promoting diversity, enforcing restrictions on unlawful tactics, restricting application numbers, and developing more transparent and fair screening mechanisms to replace Step 1 are all ways to enhance the residency application process.