Fetal hydronephrosis secondary to congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) can adversely affect neonates in the postnatal period with long-term consequences. A prenatal diagnosis of CAKUT can have an early fetal intervention to minimize these consequences. This review aims to provide an overview of the possible fetal intervention with severe hydronephrosis.
Clinical course and outcomes of CAKUT are predicted based on biochemical markers and radiological findings. In spite of advancements and accurately diagnosing the severity of hydronephrosis, there are many controversies surround on selection of cases with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) that will benefit from fetal intervention. Despite better diagnosis and techniques fetal intervention is limited to mainly lower urinary tract obstruction patients to improve amniotic fluid volume and assist in lung development.
ANH can potentially detect the severity of congenital renal anomalies but unable to recognize a specific disease. A multidisciplinary approach is required to diagnose and properly stage cases of severe CAKUT and potential surgical intervention can be considered.

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