Opioid overdose prevention education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs include information on general risk factors, overdose recognition, and naloxone utilization. This study evaluated a personally-tailored OEND (PTOEND) intervention designed to promote harm reduction and treatment readiness for illicit opioid users by also including education about personal overdose-risk factors and medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD).
A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial testing a Peer recovery support service (PRSS) intervention, relative to Control, in adult illicit opioid users reporting treatment for an overdose in the prior 6 months. PTOEND, a 30-minute computer-guided intervention, was administered by a research assistant at the randomization visit to all participants (N = 80). Participants completed a telephone visit 3 weeks post-randomization (n = 74) to assess changes in opioid overdose/MOUD knowledge and treatment readiness. Participants completed in-person visits at 3 (n = 66), 6 (n = 58), and 12 (n = 44) months post-randomization to assess illicit opioid use and naloxone utilization (all time points) and overdose-risk behaviors (12 months). We conducted pre-post analyses of the impact of PTOEND controlling for the PRSS effect.
PTOEND increased knowledge of overdose (79.8% to 81.5%, p < 0.05) and MOUD (66.9% to 75.0%, p < 0.01) and decreased perceived treatment barriers (2.1 to 1.9, p < 0.01); desire to quit all substances increased (7.2 to 7.8, p = 0.05). Self-reported opioid use was significantly decreased at each follow-up (all p < 0.01). Self-reported overdose-risk behaviors decreased significantly (6.2 to 2.4, p < 0.01). A majority of participants (65 %) reported naloxone utilization.
PTOEND may be effective for promoting harm reduction and treatment readiness.

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