The following is a summary of “Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Among Predominantly Black Gout Patients,” published in the March 2023 issue of Rheumatology by Chandrakumar, et al.
The relationship between gout and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied, but there was a lack of data specifically focused on the Black population. Therefore, for a study, researchers sought to investigate the association between gout and CVD in a predominantly Black urban population with gout.
A cross-sectional analysis compared a cohort of gout patients to an age- and sex-matched control group. In addition, clinical parameters and 2D echocardiograms were reviewed for gout patients with heart failure (HF). The primary outcome examined was the prevalence and strength of the association between gout and CVD. Secondary outcomes included the strength of the association between gout and HF, categorized by ejection fraction, and mortality and HF readmissions.
The gout cohort consisted of 471 patients with a mean age of 63.7 ± 0.5 years, 89% being Black, 63% being men, and a mean body mass index of 31.3 ± 0.4 kg/m2. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were present in 89%, 46%, and 52% of the patients. Compared to the control group, patients with gout had significantly higher rates of angina, arrhythmia, coronary artery disease/stents, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, cerebrovascular accident, and peripheral vascular disease. The adjusted odds ratio for CVD was 2.9 (95% CI, 1.9–4.5; P < 0.001). Gout patients also had a higher prevalence of HF, with 45% (n = 212) compared to 9.4% (n = 44) in the control group. The adjusted odds ratio for HF risk was 7.1 (95% CI, 4.7–10.6; P < 0.01).
In a predominantly Black population, gout was associated with a three-fold increased risk of CVD and a seven-fold increased risk of HF compared to an age- and sex-matched cohort. Further research was needed to validate the findings and develop interventions to reduce gout-associated morbidity.