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Evaluation of fusion protein cleavage site sequences of Newcastle disease virus in genotype matched vaccines.

Evaluation of fusion protein cleavage site sequences of Newcastle disease virus in genotype matched vaccines.
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Kim SH, Chen Z, Yoshida A, Paldurai A, Xiao S, Samal SK,


Kim SH, Chen Z, Yoshida A, Paldurai A, Xiao S, Samal SK, (click to view)

Kim SH, Chen Z, Yoshida A, Paldurai A, Xiao S, Samal SK,

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PloS one 2017 03 2412(3) e0173965 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0173965
Abstract

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a devastating poultry disease worldwide. Frequent outbreaks of NDV in chickens vaccinated with conventional live vaccines suggest a need to develop new vaccines that are genetically matched against circulating NDV strains, such as the genotype V virulent strains currently circulating in Mexico and Central America. In this study, a reverse genetics system was developed for the virulent NDV strain Mexico/01/10 strain and used to generate highly attenuated vaccine candidates by individually modifying the cleavage site sequence of fusion (F) protein. The cleavage site sequence of parental virus was individually changed to those of the avirulent NDV strain LaSota and other serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMV serotype-2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -8, and -9). In general, these mutations affected cell-to-cell fusion activity in vitro and the efficiency of the F protein cleavage and made recombinant Mexico/01/10 (rMex) virus highly attenuated in chickens. When chickens were immunized with the rMex mutant viruses and challenged with the virulent parent virus, there was reduced challenge virus shedding compared to birds immunized with the heterologous vaccine strain LaSota. Among the vaccine candidates, rMex containing the cleavage site sequence of APMV-2 induced the highest neutralizing antibody titer and completely protected chickens from challenge virus shedding. These results show the role of the F protein cleavage site sequence of each APMV type in generating genotype V-matched vaccines and the efficacy of matched vaccine strains to provide better protection against NDV strains currently circulating in Mexico.

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