A greater understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underpinning hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has translated to improved medical care and better survival of affected individuals. Historically these patients were considered to be at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) during exercise; therefore, exercise recommendations were highly conservative and promoted a sedentary life style. There is emerging evidence that suggests that exercise in HCM has a favorable effect on cardiovascular remodeling and moderate exercise programs have not raised any safety concerns. Furthermore, individuals with HCM have a similar burden of atherosclerotic risk factors as the general population in whom exercise has been associated with a reduction in myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure, especially among those with a high-risk burden. Small studies revealed that athletes who choose to continue with regular competition do not demonstrate adverse outcomes when compared to those who discontinue sport, and active individuals implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator do not have an increased risk of appropriate shocks or other adverse events. The recently published exercise recommendations from the European Association for Preventative Cardiology account for more contemporary evidence and adopt a more liberal stance regarding competitive and high intensity sport in individuals with low-risk HCM. This review addresses the issue of exercise in individuals with HCM, and explores current evidence supporting safety of exercise in HCM, potential caveats, and areas of further research.© 2020 The Authors. Clinical Cardiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
An epidemiological survey of the current status of Zika and immune interaction between dengue and Zika infection in Southern Taiwan.
January 30, 2020
November 26, 2019
January 24, 2020