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Exercise leads to unfavourable cardiac remodelling and enhanced metabolic homeostasis in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle autophagy deficiency.

Exercise leads to unfavourable cardiac remodelling and enhanced metabolic homeostasis in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle autophagy deficiency.
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Yan Z, Kronemberger A, Blomme J, Call JA, Caster HM, Pereira RO, Zhao H, de Melo VU, Laker RC, Zhang M, Lira VA,


Yan Z, Kronemberger A, Blomme J, Call JA, Caster HM, Pereira RO, Zhao H, de Melo VU, Laker RC, Zhang M, Lira VA, (click to view)

Yan Z, Kronemberger A, Blomme J, Call JA, Caster HM, Pereira RO, Zhao H, de Melo VU, Laker RC, Zhang M, Lira VA,

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Scientific reports 2017 08 117(1) 7894 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-08480-2
Abstract

Autophagy is stimulated by exercise in several tissues; yet the role of skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific autophagy on the benefits of exercise training remains incompletely understood. Here, we determined the metabolic impact of exercise training in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle disruption of the Autophagy related 7 gene (Atg7(h&mKO)). Muscle autophagy deficiency did not affect glucose clearance and exercise capacity in lean adult mice. High-fat diet in sedentary mice led to endoplasmic reticulum stress and aberrant mitochondrial protein expression in autophagy-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscles. Endurance exercise training partially reversed these abnormalities in skeletal muscle, but aggravated those in the heart also causing cardiac fibrosis, foetal gene reprogramming, and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis. Interestingly, exercise-trained Atg7(h&mKO) mice were better protected against obesity and insulin resistance with increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), elevated Fgf21 mRNA and protein solely in the heart, and upregulation of FGF21-target genes involved in thermogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in brown fat. These results indicate that autophagy is essential for the protective effects of exercise in the heart. However, the atypical remodelling elicited by exercise in the autophagy deficient cardiac muscle enhances whole-body metabolism, at least partially, via a heart-brown fat cross-talk involving FGF21.

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