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Expanding access to naloxone for family members: The Massachusetts experience.

Expanding access to naloxone for family members: The Massachusetts experience.
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Bagley SM, Forman LS, Ruiz S, Cranston K, Walley AY,


Bagley SM, Forman LS, Ruiz S, Cranston K, Walley AY, (click to view)

Bagley SM, Forman LS, Ruiz S, Cranston K, Walley AY,

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Drug and alcohol review 2017 04 20() doi 10.1111/dar.12551

Abstract
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS
The Massachusetts Department of Public Health Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution Program provides overdose education and naloxone rescue kits to people at risk for overdose and bystanders, including family members. Using Massachusetts Department of Public Health data, the aims are to: (i) describe characteristics of family members who receive naloxone; (ii) identify where family members obtain naloxone; and (iii) describe characteristics of rescues by family members.

DESIGN AND METHODS
We conducted a retrospective review using program enrollee information collected on a standardised form between 2008 and 2015. We calculated descriptive statistics, including demographics, current substance use, enrolment location, history of witnessed overdoses and rescue attempt characteristics. We conducted a stratified analysis comparing family members who used drugs with those who did not.

RESULTS
Family members were 27% of total program enrollees (n = 10 883/40 801). Family members who reported substance use (n = 4679) were 35.6 years (mean), 50.6% female, 76.3% non-Hispanic white, 75.6% had witnessed an overdose, and they obtained naloxone most frequently at HIV prevention programs. Family members who did not report substance use (n = 6148) were 49.2 years (mean), 73.8% female, 87.9% non-Hispanic white, 35.3% had witnessed an overdose, and they obtained naloxone most frequently at community meetings. Family members were responsible for 20% (n = 860/4373) of the total rescue attempts.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
The Massachusetts experience demonstrates that family members can be active participants in responding to the overdose epidemic by rescuing family members and others. Targeted intervention strategies for families should be included in efforts to expand overdose education and naloxone in Massachusetts. [Bagley SM, Forman LS, Ruiz S, Cranston K, Walley AY. Expanding access to naloxone for family members: The Massachusetts experience. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000].

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