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Experiences of Discrimination and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Experiences of Discrimination and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
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Whitaker KM, Everson-Rose SA, Pankow JS, Rodriguez CJ, Lewis TT, Kershaw KN, Diez Roux AV, Lutsey PL,


Whitaker KM, Everson-Rose SA, Pankow JS, Rodriguez CJ, Lewis TT, Kershaw KN, Diez Roux AV, Lutsey PL, (click to view)

Whitaker KM, Everson-Rose SA, Pankow JS, Rodriguez CJ, Lewis TT, Kershaw KN, Diez Roux AV, Lutsey PL,

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American journal of epidemiology 2017 04 12() 1-11 doi 10.1093/aje/kwx047
Abstract

Experiences of discrimination are associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes; however, it is unknown whether discrimination is related to incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes). We investigated the associations of major experiences of discrimination (unfair treatment in 6 situations) and everyday discrimination (frequency of day-to-day experiences of unfair treatment) with incident diabetes among 5,310 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, enrolled in 2000-2002. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated hazard ratios and confidence intervals, adjusting for demographic factors, depressive symptoms, stress, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, diet, waist circumference, and body mass index. Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, 654 diabetes cases were accrued. Major experiences of discrimination were associated with greater risk of incident diabetes when modeled continuously (for each additional experience of discrimination, hazard ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.17) or categorically (for ≥2 experiences vs. 0, hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.66). Similar patterns were observed when evaluating discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity or to a combination of other sources. Everyday discrimination was not associated with incident diabetes. In conclusion, major experiences of discrimination were associated with increased risk of incident diabetes, independent of obesity or behavioral and psychosocial factors. Future research is needed to explore the mechanisms of the discrimination-diabetes relationship.

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