As per WHO, Cervical cancer (CaCx) is a global issue, being the fourth common cancer in women with incidence rate of 13.1 per 1 lakh women globally and accounting for 311000 deaths in the year 2018 itself globally. The molecular pathogenesis in Human papillomavirus (HPV) infected cases is inconclusive. The detection of molecular factors leading to progression of CaCx can be important in the diagnosis and management of the disease. p53 a known tumor suppressor gene having a regulative role in cell cycle has been highlighted as key factor in the prevention of cancer but its significance in CaCx cases has been variably documented. The present study therefore targeted to evaluate the significance of p53 profile in CaCx cases in ethnically distinct northeast Indian population.
Blood and Tissue samples (N = 85) of cervical cancer patients were collected and screening for HPV was performed using PCR. Thereafter the differential mRNA expression(qPCR), Immunohistochemistry, Mutation (PCR direct sequencing method) of p53 was studied. Further p53 epigenetic profiling was done by Methylation specific PCR (MS-PCR) and western blotting by using p53 acetylation specific antibodies.
Our findings revealed that the downregulation of p53 was associated with the progression of disease and the variation in downregulation based on p53 polymorphism was observed. Further hypermethylation and deacetylation of p53 was also found to be associated with the pathogenesis of CaCx. The downregulated expression and hypermethylation of p53 in lower grade of CaCx, together established its association with the progression of CaCx from lower to severe grade.
Therefore, in CaCx patients of northeast Indian population, malfunctioning of p53 is found to have significant role in cervical cancer progression.