Asthma, a common chronic pulmonary disorder characterized by airway remodeling, hyperresponsiveness and obstruction, can be aggravated by repeated exposure to particulate matter (PM). The potential effect and mechanisms of Radix essential oil (AEO) against asthma were explored based on network pharmacology. AEO was pre-treated using a nebulizer for 3 weeks and the mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and PM with the co-treatment of AEO for 4 weeks. In addition, A549 lung epithelial cells were sensitized with PM to investigate the underlying mechanisms of AEO regarding the lung-fibrosis-related mediators. The target genes of methyl eugenol, a main compound of AEO, were highly matched by 48% with the gene set of asthma. AEO markedly inhibited the increase in epithelial thickness through the accumulation of goblet cells in the airways. Collagen deposition in the lung tissues of OVA+PM-challenged asthmatic mice was significantly decreased by AEO. AEO also inhibited the influx of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as the increases in serum IgE and IgG and cytokines in the lung tissues. Furthermore, AEO regulated the expressions of fibrotic mediators, especially POSTN and TGF-β. In conclusion, we expect that AEO can be one of the effective alternative therapeutics to relieve asthma.