To investigate the effects of hyperosmolar state (HS) on immune response and inflammation via the NFAT5 pathway and examine whether immune-mediated conditions trigger autism-like behavior in offspring.
A pregnant rat model was performed by administering hyperosmotic solutions. Pregnant rats were divided into 2 main groups; control (group I) and hyperosmolar groups (group II). Control group rats were given % 0.25 NaCI (tap water) (n = 6), the Hyperosmolar (HO) group was further subdivided into 3 groups as; Group II a rats which were given % 3 hypertonic NaCl (n=6), Group II b rats were given mineral water (% 3 NaHCO3+magnesium+calcium content) (n=6), and Group II c rats were given Ayran (% 0.8 NaCl content) (n=6). Their offspring were examined for behaviors, biochemical and histological abnormality.
In offspring, TNF- α, IL-17, NFAT-5, and NGF levels in the brain were significantly higher in hyperosmotic solution groups than in control rats. Exposure of pregnant rats to hyperosmotic solution resulted in autism-like behaviors in their offspring. Through immunohistochemical methods, we found that CA1 and CA2 of the hippocampus indicated decreased number of neurons in hyperosmotic solution groups compared with the control group.
Our findings once again emphasized that the immune-mediated conditions involved in the pathophysiology of autism. NFAT5 pathway may be a key factor in the development of neuroinflammation by hyperosmotic solutions.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.