The main objective of the study is to examine the hypothesis claiming a correlation between personality traits measured with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) personality questionnaire and the expression of the ERα () and ERβ () encoding gene in patients suffering from depression.
The experiment was carried out on a group of 44 individuals with depression. The Polish variant of the MMPI-2 was applied with the aim of assessing personality traits. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the expression of the genes encoding the oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) at the mRNA level and protein level in the studied population.
No significant differences in the expression of ERα and ERβ encoding genes were found and confirmed in the patients with the first episode of depression and those suffering from subsequent episodes of the disease. No differences were found between women and men, either. In women a positive relationship was found between the scale of psychopathy ( = 0.04), paranoia ( = 0.01), and mania ( = 0.03) and expression for the ERα encoding gene at the mRNA level. A negative relationship was found between the mania scale and ERβ encoding gene expression at mRNA ( = 0.03) and protein ( = 0.04) levels. In males a positive relationship between anxiety as a personality trait and expression of the ERβ receptor encoding gene at mRNA level ( = 0.03) and protein level ( = 0.03) was found.
Personality traits may be linked with the expression of genes encoding oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) among patients with depressive disorders.

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