Endometriosis is a gynocological disease characterized by the presence of the endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. This disease affects %6-10 of women with reproductive age and it causes serious problems such as pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility. Although endometriosis is one of the most investigated disease of gynecology, its pathogenesis is not clear completely. In recent years, many studies revealed the inflammatory nature of endometriosis. Many of the immune cells and their secretory products cytokines and chemokines has been detected in body fluids of women with endometriosis. Cytokines are protein or glycoprotein in structures and hormon-like molecules that act generally in a paracrine fashion to regulate immun responses. They involved in chemotaxis, cell proliferation, cell activation, motility, adhesion and morphogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proenflammatory cytokine secreted by the macrophages, monocytes, neutrophiles, T cells and natural killer cells. It stimulates increase in the level of the chemokines in body fluids. Monocyte chemotactic protein 2 (MCP-2) is a chemokine act to recruit and activate monocytes into sites of inflammation area. The aim of this study to investigate the ultrastructural properties and whether the expression and localization of TNF-α and MCP-2 in the eutopic endometrium (normal endometrium of women with endometriosis) and endometritic tissues of women with endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial and endometriotic tissue samples were obtained from the women with endometriosis range 20-41 years and normal endometrial tissues were collected from 5 women without endometriosis as a control group. Tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy and examined. The epithelial cells of endometriotic tissues were revealed strongly cytoplasmic TNFα and MCP-2 immunreactivities. Eutopic endometrial tissues were also stained prominently for both TNF-α and MCP-2. Furthermore, a significant increase in stromal macrophages cells were observed in endometriotic tissues. Moreover, the ultrastructural observations on the normal and endometriotic tissues were exhibited microvilli-rich cells and ciliated cells. These findings suggest that TNF-α and MCP-2 may be involved in normal endometrial biology and in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.