To assess whether having a pet in the home is a risk factor for community-acquired urinary tract infections associated with extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- or AmpC β-lactamase (ACBL)- producing Enterobacterales.
An unmatched case-control study was conducted between August 2015 and September 2017. Cases (n=141) were people with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL- or ACBL- producing Enterobacterales. Controls (n=525) were recruited from the community. A telephone questionnaire on pet ownership, and other factors was administered, and associations were assessed using logistic regression.
Pet ownership was not associated with ESBL- or ACBL-producing Enterobacterales related human UTIs. A positive association was observed for recent antimicrobial treatment, travel to Asia in the previous year, and a doctor’s visit in the previous six months. Among isolates with an ESBL-/ACBL-producing phenotype 126/134 (94%) were Escherichia coli, with sequence type (ST) 131 being the most common (47/126).
Companion animals in the home were not found to be associated with ESBL- or ACBL-producing Enterobacterales related community-acquired UTI in New Zealand. Risk factors included overseas travel, recent antibiotic use, and doctor visits.

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