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Extensive virologic and immunologic characterization in an HIV-infected individual following allogeneic stem cell transplant and analytic cessation of antiretroviral therapy: A case study.

Extensive virologic and immunologic characterization in an HIV-infected individual following allogeneic stem cell transplant and analytic cessation of antiretroviral therapy: A case study.
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Cummins NW, Rizza S, Litzow MR, Hua S, Lee GQ, Einkauf K, Chun TW, Rhame F, Baker JV, Busch MP, Chomont N, Dean PG, Fromentin R, Haase AT, Hampton D, Keating SM, Lada SM, Lee TH, Natesampillai S, Richman DD, Schacker TW, Wietgrefe S, Yu XG, Yao JD, Zeuli J, Lichterfeld M, Badley AD,


Cummins NW, Rizza S, Litzow MR, Hua S, Lee GQ, Einkauf K, Chun TW, Rhame F, Baker JV, Busch MP, Chomont N, Dean PG, Fromentin R, Haase AT, Hampton D, Keating SM, Lada SM, Lee TH, Natesampillai S, Richman DD, Schacker TW, Wietgrefe S, Yu XG, Yao JD, Zeuli J, Lichterfeld M, Badley AD, (click to view)

Cummins NW, Rizza S, Litzow MR, Hua S, Lee GQ, Einkauf K, Chun TW, Rhame F, Baker JV, Busch MP, Chomont N, Dean PG, Fromentin R, Haase AT, Hampton D, Keating SM, Lada SM, Lee TH, Natesampillai S, Richman DD, Schacker TW, Wietgrefe S, Yu XG, Yao JD, Zeuli J, Lichterfeld M, Badley AD,

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PLoS medicine 2017 11 2814(11) e1002461 doi 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002461

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Notwithstanding 1 documented case of HIV-1 cure following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), several subsequent cases of allo-SCT in HIV-1 positive individuals have failed to cure HIV-1 infection. The aim of our study was to describe changes in the HIV reservoir in a single chronically HIV-infected patient on suppressive antiretroviral therapy who underwent allo-SCT for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

METHODS AND FINDINGS
We prospectively collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by leukapheresis from a 55-year-old man with chronic HIV infection before and after allo-SCT to measure the size of the HIV-1 reservoir and characterize viral phylogeny and phenotypic changes in immune cells. At day 784 post-transplant, when HIV-1 was undetectable by multiple measures-including PCR measurements of both total and integrated HIV-1 DNA, replication-competent virus measurement by large cell input quantitative viral outgrowth assay, and in situ hybridization of colon tissue-the patient consented to an analytic treatment interruption (ATI) with frequent clinical monitoring. He remained aviremic off antiretroviral therapy until ATI day 288, when a low-level virus rebound of 60 HIV-1 copies/ml occurred, which increased to 1,640 HIV-1 copies/ml 5 days later, prompting reinitiation of ART. Rebounding plasma HIV-1 sequences were phylogenetically distinct from proviral HIV-1 DNA detected in circulating PBMCs before transplantation. The main limitations of this study are the insensitivity of reservoir measurements, and the fact that it describes a single case.

CONCLUSIONS
allo-SCT led to a significant reduction in the size of the HIV-1 reservoir and a >9-month-long ART-free remission from HIV-1 replication. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the origin of rebound virus was distinct from the viruses identified pre-transplant in the PBMCs.

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