Extragonadal non-gestational choriocarcinoma is a rare but well-described phenomenon occurring in patients with midline germ cell tumors. Choriocarcinoma (ChC) is an aggressive neoplasm usually developing in women as a rare complication of pregnancy. In male patients ChC occurs in the testes, usually as a component of mixed germ cell tumors. Very few patients develop extragonadal choriocarcinoma with the tumor occurring in midline locations, such as the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and central nervous system (mostly pineal gland). Non-midline choriocarcinoma can occur in the lung, gastrointestinal tract, and breast, sometimes blended with another primary malignancy. A midline choriocarcinoma manifesting as a head and neck malignancy is exceptional. During an evaluation of multiple enlarged cervical lymph nodes suspected to be lymphoma in a 72-year-old man, a core biopsy was taken from one of the left neck lymph nodes which histologically showed a necrotic malignancy with strong diffuse pancytokeratin staining. After an initial interpretation of metastatic carcinoma, further samples were taken from both tonsils and from a right level 5 neck lymph node. Histologically, all samples contained the same tumor, showing profound pleomorphism and multinucleated syncytial-type giant cells. A panel of immunohistochemistry studies were performed, including β-human chorionic gonadotropin, with positive findings leading to a diagnosis of extragonadal non-gestational choriocarcinoma.

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